The input shaft is what connects the engine to the gearbox and thus, carry the same power and speed of the crankshaft of the engine.
Also called as the layshaft, the countershaft connects the input shaft to the output shaft through a fixed speed gear. Additionally, it also contains the gears for the drive gears of the car including the one for reverse.
These gears are located on the output shaft. They determine the ‘gear’ that your car is currently engaged in, like 1st gear, 2nd gear, ans so on. Each gear is enmeshed with the gear directly underneath it mounted on the countershaft.
This shaft runs parallel directly above the layshaft. The output shaft is what transmits or delivers the power of the engine to the rest of the drivetrain. The power and speed of the output shaft is dependent on the gears that are currently engaged.
This gear is located between the reverse gear mounted on the output shaft and its corresponding gear mounted on the layshaft. This is what allows the vehicle to go in reverse.
Synchronizer Sleeves or Collars
Modern cars have synchronized gearboxes. This means that the gears mounted on both the layshaft and the output shaft are always enmeshed and are always spinning. The question most people have is that if all of the gears are somehow connected to one another and all of them are spinning at the same time, how is it possible that only one of these gears will be transmitting the right amount of usable power or torque to the output shaft. Additionally, since the input shaft is technically spinning at a different speed from the output shaft, is it even possible to obtain a smooth transmission of power? This is the work of synchronizer collars or sleeves.